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1699 (a) [+ 1700]: Satara, Maharashtra [+ Parli, 1700]1699 map
Documented causes: scorched earth warfare [+ flood]
Documented effects: starving army

Saqi Must'ad Khan (trans. Sir Jadunath Sarkar), "Maasir-i-Alamgiri" (1947)
pp250-1: [the Emperor's siege of Satara fort, Maharashtra, 1699-1700] "On Friday, the 8th December, 1699 /25th Jamnd. S., the imperial tent was pitched at the foot of the fort, at a distance of half a kos. On the other side was placed the camp of 'Azam Shall. The army surrounded the environs of the fort. ... The countless force of the enemy outside the fort fell on the provisions and burnt the grass, the means of life of the cattle, for twenty miles round. On some occasions they boldly approached the camp but were put to flight. Scarcity of grain and fodder reached the extreme point. Those who looked at the external aspect of things thought the conquest of the fort an impossibility."

[It was eventually captured on 21 Apr 1700, and the army moved on to besiege the Parli fort, arriving there 30 Apr:]
p257: "But what shall I write about the excess of rain and scarcity of grain and fodder? * * * The dark clouds showered day and night like the eyes of orphans. Houses were submerged. * * * In short, owing to the flood of the rivers and the non-arrival of provisions from all sides, famine became severe. I wonder at the firmness and strength of the Emperor who, without being alarmed by it, encouraged and consoled the soldiers."
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