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1690 (a): Gujarat1690 map
Documented causes: unspecified
Documented effects: epidemic; heavy mortality

M.F. Lokhandwala (trans.) "Mirat-i-Ahmadi: A Persian History of Gujarat (English Translation)" (1965)
p290: "In the year one thousand, one hundred and two many masjids in the city of Ahmedabad needed repairs … There were a famine as well as signs of an epidemic at Broach, Surat, Ahmedabad and many other places. A large number of persons died."
[1102 AH is 1690-91 CE]

1690s: some underlying problems

John Ovington, "India in the Seventeenth Century …Vol. 1: A Voyage to Suratt in the Year 1689" (1904)
pp82-3: "The frequent revolts in India render those parts very miserable, and reduce the inhabitants to a very distressed state. For hoping to retrieve their liberty, and regain the kingdoms they have lost, they often declare for a rajah, which is a native Indian prince, and stand by him till the Mogul overpowers their forces, defeats their rebellion, stints their progress, and reduces them to a tame obedience again. So that one while the Mogul comes upon a city, and demands the contribution of so many thousand gold moors, or else he threatens the raizing its foundations, pillaging the houses, and converting them into smoak and flames. When he is retreated, the rajah's army flies upon them with fury and hunger, and storms their towns, and threatens them with fire and sword as their inevitable fate, if they offer to delay the payment of so many thousand gold rupees more. Or if these formidable threats are not listened to, they take that by rapine, which was civilly demanded, ravage the country, and load themselves with plunder and spoil. Which makes fear and distress, poverty and famine the universal air and genius of those unquiet abodes. ...
Sometimes the conquest of one part of the kingdom is the loss of another, for that rajah who without reluctancy submitted to the Mogul's power, while his camp was near, immediately disclaims it, when he knows it at a distance; which commotions bring on the Mogul endless troubles and expence."
"Records of Fort St. George: Diary and Consultation Book of 1693" (1918)
p60 (consultation of 18 Mar 1693): "Some Inhabitants of the Town haveing bought up and ingrossed all the Paddy and Rice Imported, att a lower price for which they have given earnest to the Northern Merchants Importers, who yett sell it out in their own names, but the proffitt is for the Engrossers, who endeavour to raise the price soe that tis grown dearer 20 Pr. Cent, and will grow dearer daily unless prevented, It is therefore ordered that Paddy be sold att the Sea Side for 24 or 25 Mercall for a Pag'da: and the said Paddy att the Banksall att 25 & 26 for a Pagoda: till further order, and Rice to be sold att a rate proportionable to the prices of Paddy: according to the Goodnesse, w'ch: the Mayor and Aldermen and all others are ordered to see duely observed."
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