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1647 (a): Agra to Ahmedabad1647 map
Documented causes: drought (+ war?)
Documented effects: migration; depopulation

"The English Factories in India: 1646 - 1650" (1914)
p192: [President & colleagues (at Swally Marine) to the EIC, 6 Jan 1648] "Heere fell the passed season not soe much raines as usuall, though sufficient to render all things plentifull in this place; but in some other parts of this kingdome there hath bin greate want thereof, especially betwixt Jalore and Adgmyer, about 150 course continuance in the usuall way betwixt Agra and Ahmada[bad]; which hath occasioned a famine, insoemuch that those parts are, either by mortallity or peoples flight, become wholly depopulate and impassable; which induced Mr. Knipe with his caphilla (consisting of 84 carts), and all th'other merchants since arrived, to come a new way, which, though something shorter then the former, hath not, in respect of the dainger and troublesomenes thereof, being mountanous, and greate taxes paid in severall Rajayes countries, bin soe usually frequented. Yett hee passed quietly and without any molestacion or disturbance untill hee arrived within 70 corse of Ahmada[bad]; when, at a place called Burrkee Gatte, notwithstanding that Rajay Roul Ponja [Raja Rawal Punja] lent him 60 horsemen and 400 foote to convoy the caphilla dureing its continuance in his jurisdiction, was assaulted by one Inggadas, a notorious theefe, with 60 horsemen in armor and 2,000 foote; where, after a hott dispute, your servants and estate might in probability have suffered, had not the Almighty bin pleased, in the very nick of time, to bring into their assistance, sent by the Rajay of Ider, into whose cuntry they were then entering, about 100 horse and 200 foote, with which they repelled the ennimy. And soe, with the losse of four men on theirs and eleven of the adverce party, they brought away your goods in safety, all but two stragling carts, whereupon you lost one bale of Deriabads, four bales chints, one saltpeeter, seven sugar, and one of guzees ; which is thought fell not into those theeves hands that assalted them, but were robbed by Roule Pounjas people; soe that wee are in hopes either to recover restitution of or sattisfaction from them, and to that purpose wee have already procured the Governor of Ahmada[bad]s provana [parwand] unto that Raja." The cost of the caravan was very high. Knipe had to pay at the rate of 43 1/2 rupees per cart, whereas formerly the charge was only 30 rupees; while from Swinnerton, who was behind with 218 camels, "they exacted after the rate of 57 rupees per cart. Yet hee also escaped better then divers Mogull and Banian merchants who followed him; as also the Dutch, who, for a small caphilla, not conducted by any of their owne people, paid upwards of 65 rupees per cart. Soe that this will continue noe way for merchants to pass longer then necessity compells them thereunto."

p198: [Fort St. George to the President and Council at Surat, 17 Jan 1648] "The warrs doth yett continue in these parts; butt (God bee thanked) the famine is much abated."
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