MISSED HISTORY: contact vinlandmap.info

To home page

1534 (a): Kashmir1534 map
Documented causes: war aftermath and snow
Documented effects: heavy mortality + emigration

R.K. Parmu, "A History Of Muslim Rule In Kashmir 1320-1819" (1969)
pp214-5: [Aftermath of the Kashgari Moghul invasion of Kashmir, which ended in May 1533] "The departure of the Kashgharis was followed by acute economic crisis mainly caused by the savage destruction of men and the means of production by them. Still the farmers lost no effort and time to grow foodstuffs. But the season having far advanced the harvest failed. The result was the appalling famine of 1534. The foodstuffs became so scarce that a kharwar of shali could not be procured even for ten thousand' dinars. There ensued huge mortality on the one hand and exodus of people on the other. The situation remained unchanged for ten months."
Khwajah Nizamuddin Ahmad, "Tabaqat-i-akbari" (vol. 3, trans. 1939)
pp704-5: [after account of peace treaty] "During this year two comets or stars with tails rose above the horizon. A terrible famine took place in these days, so that most of the people died of hunger; and the remainder who survived, abandoned their native land and went away to distant places; and the story of Dilju, who had perpetrated a general massacre, having sunk into oblivion in people's minds, appeared as of no importance in comparison to this catastrophe. These hardships continued for ten months, and then ceased; and as the fruit season also drew near, some happiness made its appearance among the people."
Jogesh C. Dutt (trans. & comp.), "Kings of Kashmira" (vol. 3, 1898)
pp373-5: [Shuka's continuation of the history of the kings; events following the Kashgari/Mughal invasion] "... in the year 9, in the month of Jyaishtha, the Muggulas returned to their country, taking with them by force the wealth of the people, and by treaty the daughter of the king. In this way calamity befell the sinful people in the Satisara country, and a comet was seen continually in the sky on the east and on the west. ...
Stars fell from the sky [i.e. snow] on the fields where the full harvest of rice was ripening, and a comet became again visible. Even as a Rakshasa devours a king so did this calamity devoured the grains; and there happened a great famine, the destroyer of food. When Famine entered the kingdom, his powerful soldiers, hunger and thirst, the oppressors of the people, stalked about. One khari of grain was then bought for ten thousand pieces of nishka [Footnote: "A nishka is supposed to be equal to a dinara."], and none but the rich could get it. Men and women wandered about in hunger in order to save their lives, casting aside their love for husband, for son, and the service due towards their parents. The hungry people ate twice or thrice or four times during day, and yet again wandered about like sprites in quest of food. Abdala Malleka and others were bent on doing acts of virtue at this time, they cooked a large quantity of grain and fed the people every day. Men died of hunger and thirst in villages, in the city, and in the king's highway, and lay like sprites, and uncounted. Some people saved their lives by selling their stores of silver and baser metals, and by living on herbs, walnuts, and heart-pease. The calamity caused by the famine was greater than the ravages done by the enemies, even as a bad boil is more troublesome than the disease of the throat or of the eye. The famine became more severe at the end of the month of Jyaishtha, in the year 10, than what it had been in the year 9, and spread itself all over the country. Then a good season, like the minister of king Food, brightened all sides with small seeds as with lamps, and came to struggle with Famine. As wheat grew on stocks and rose from the ground, and looked like a terrace, its grains welcomed, as it were, the survivors. It seemed as if when king Food saw his army overpowered, he came himself to conquer the powerful Famine which was like a mighty Rakshasa. He spread out his great army of vegetables and rice and coarse grain, and the walnuts were the stones he shot from his machines. He conquered Famine, and then took his rest. The lean creatures were nourished by the produce of king Food, and they always thought that they were born again."
To home page